The History of Radio Galen at the Origins of Broadcasting – ExamMint

Radio Galen at the Origins of Broadcasting
Radio Galen at the Origins of Broadcasting

Origins of Broadcasting: Without batteries or batteries, with headphones made from simple elements, Galen, Galen, or simply Galen radio appeared in the late 19th century and became popular in the early 20th century as an inexpensive invention, simple to assemble and ultimately accessible to all. all age groups to receive radio signals over several kilometers, new communications began to spread and quickly became popular because they made the world known to anyone, no matter where you are. We are talking about the time when the phone has not yet been implemented in homes and many even did not have electricity. The time when the news was read or told to you a few days late.

Origins of Broadcasting

Radio Galena, or the English-language radio, was not the first radio receiver, but it was a simpler and more democratic option , It was not ideal, because the signal quality was unclear, and you had to use the headset to listen to the sound from the other side of the radio waves, but it was the only one that you could do. 39, the most popular option at a time when the radio stations, while the armature they had exorbitant prices for the lower classes. In addition, the Galena radio allows you to assemble with the appropriate details and takes up less space than the first radios, which, moreover, came installed in furniture that took up more space.

Do it yourself

We bought furniture that we need to assemble with more or less success. Ikea made it fashionable, and today many manufacturers sell their products for assembly, especially if you buy online. And in the field of electronics, projects such as the Raspberry Pi and the like have found the spirit of the first personal computers that, instead of those already assembled, as they should be today, mount them yourself At a time when computers were available only to universities, government agencies and large corporations.

To these examples, we have to add the DIY phenomenon. This requires a dynamic that we managed to achieve several decades ago at the end of the month that they had to design to extend the life of clothing, objects or appliances. Today, Do It Yourself has found followers among those who advocate recycling and reuse instead of throwing them into trash cans.

Saving distances, the radio galena looks like the invention of DIY. Although you can buy it already assembled, it was common to buy things and assemble them yourself, as easy as it worked. roughly There are three components : a receiver, a tuner and headphones. Over the years, we will find options and new items, but these are the main ones.

The receiver is basically an antenna , and although when we talk about antennas, we think of a television or satellite antenna, the Galena radio antenna was a simple insulated copper cable with a ground connection. Something more like the antennas of modern smartphones, so tiny that they are inside. The second component is galena radio, a tuner or detector, consisting of a cylinder of insulating material around which a copper cable is connected, which is connected to the antenna on one side and grounded on the other. And for the proper determination of the signal, Galen Stone , who gives his name to the invention and who is in contact with the thin wirewhich acts as a manual tuner based on a contact test at various points in the stone. Thirdly, some helmet that converts the sound received so that it can be heard and understood at a minimum.

The first question that arises is how does an electrical appliance work without electricity? The Galena radio did not include batteries, a battery or even a plug, not to mention a pen for power generation, as is the case with some portable radios that will be born for many years. The answer is that the energy necessary for the operation of the Galena radio comes from the radio waves themselves. Therefore, the intensity of the acoustic signal to be low

From Morse Code to Broadcast

There is no single parent or inventor who could be assigned to Galena Radio. Interestingly, the same thing happens with radio, because on the one hand, Heinrich Hertz discovered electromagnetic waves, Popov, Tesla or Marconi, among other things, conduct the first experiments and learn how to use radio waves and Samuel Morse and Alfred Weil create Morse code to communicate through simple schemes through these waves with the help of the new invention – the telegraph, which also does not have a single inventor.

To return to Galen radio, we have to thank Carl Ferdinand Braun to discover the rectification property of some semiconductor mineral crystals, i.e. Alternating current . Out of curiosity, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 with Marconi for his contribution to wireless telegraphy. And the choice of galena. As a mineral for use in radio receivers, we owe these few researchers, such as Jagadish Chandra Bose , the first to use Galena detectors, or lead sulfide to get waves (1894) or Greenleaf Whittier Picard , who patented the detector of silicon signal in 1906.

Although Galena radio helped popularize the radio as a means of communication for the masses, its first use was to receive Morse signals — the fastest means used at the time to get information for several miles using simple models of short and long signals. compare with the binary code on which the calculation is based.

Over time, it turned out that in addition to small audio signals, Radio Galen can receive more complex signals, such as broadcasting. Its popularity was such that even newspapers and magazines Meanwhile, they explained how to set up their own Galena radio for home use. Despite this, its limitations regarding sound amplificationand the received signal made more complex radio receivers, such as thermoelectric valves or tubes that require batteries or direct electric current to operate. But it will not be until the end of the 50s of the 20th century that transistor radios or a transistor that will be popularized in the 60s and 70s because of their portability and more affordable prices for the general public.

For radio amateurs

The 20s were the golden age of Galena radio, and because of the improvement of the radio receivers they were forgotten, and over time their price dropped. In general, in the 1950s and 1960s, the Galena radio again became popular as a do-it-yourself product, which Any amateur in electronics, at a radio frequency or simply on a ship, he could assemble himself alone if he had the necessary elements , as simple as crystal stone or galen, copper wire, ferrite tube, cardboard or plastic, and now a germanium diode and even a ceramic capacitor.

Radio Galena 70s for children. Source: Joe Haupt (Wikipedia)

For the history of radio, galena remains in memory as an invention accessible to all and which has turned distribution into mass media for the most part, and this paved the way for its future competitor, television. Otherwise, a simple search on the Internet will allow us to establish our own radio in Galen and receive FM or AM signals with sound quality that will take us to the 20s of the last century.

 

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